kudzu range map

[23] Soil solarization affects the micronutrients and macronutrients in the soil. [7][11] The leaves have the ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen, which can supply up to 95% of leaf nitrogen to the plant in poor soils. [7] When kudzu was first introduced in the southeast, it was initially used as an ornamental vine to shade homes. Maps can be downloaded and shared. [7][8][14] Kudzu was introduced to the Southeast in 1883 at the New Orleans Exposition. Kudzu mostly lives in the southeast because of the well-drained eroded lands. [18] The fast growth and high competitive ability is achieved through several key features of kudzu that are detailed below. Range. [7] Power companies must spend about $1.5 million per year to repair damage to power lines. This has earned it the nickname "the vine that ate the South". Later, the United States government distributed the plant around the region to help prevent soil erosion. Factors Contributing to Species Range Several factors determine species range. ANR-65. Kudzu also forms symbiotic relationships with nitrogen-fixing bacteria to convert atmospheric nitrogen (N2) into ammonium which can be used by surrounding plants. Australian Government. Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health. See also: Aquatic Invasive Species: Resources for additional species information, See also: Publications - Weed Control for Lawn and Garden for more resources. By 1997, the vine was placed on the "Federal Noxious Weed List". Range of invasion on Maui: On Maui, kudzu can be found in low elevation wet areas along the Hana Highway in Keanae, Wailua, and Nahiku. [18] In the southeast, the spread of kudzu is especially troublesome because of the high level of biodiversity in this region that is not found in other regions of the United States. [13] Vines must be mowed down just above ground level every month or two during the growing season in order to prevent them from growing back. The following species have been reported to be invasive in natural areas in the U.S. [11], The kudzu plant was introduced to the United States from Japan in 1876 at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia. [Accessed Mar 19, 2015]. A second major promotion of kudzu came in 1884 in the Japanese pavilion at the New Orleans Exposition… [15], Of the diseases that have been identified as potential biological control agents, the fungal pathogen Myrothecium verrucaria has been shown to be very promising. [7] A separate study also found two weevils that attacked the stems of kudzu and eight beetles that complete larval development in the kudzu roots. Happy weeding! Ecological Threat The kudzu bug is able to survive anywhere that the kudzu vine is present – and has the potential to spread into areas where the vine spreads to. Kudzu (Pueraria montana) is a semi-woody, trailing or climbing, perennial invasive vine native to China, Japan, and the Indian subcontinent. [11], Other uses may include: paper products, food products, insect repellents (the smoke from burning leaves), honey, and methane production. North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. 1999. GRIN-Global. Home; Report; Distribution Map; Research; Identification; Control; Images; Video; Links; Contact; Website developed, maintained and hosted by the Bugwood Center for Invasives Species and Ecosystem Health at the University of Georgia as part of the Southern IPM Center with funding provided by USDA NIFA, under Agreement No. [7], The economic impact of kudzu in the United States is estimated at $100 million to $500 million lost per year in forest productivity. Kudzu in Alabama: History, Uses, and Control (PDF | 1.46 MB) Alabama Cooperative Extension System. Its fleshy tap roots can reach 7 in. "Kudzu (, Forseth. Washington Invasive Species Council. As with most aggressive exotic species, eradication requires persistence in monitoring and thoroughness in treating patches during a multi-year program. In 1953 the United States Department of Agriculture removed kudzu from a list of suggested cover plants and listed it as a weed in 1970. [7] The climate and environment of the Southeastern United States allowed the kudzu to grow virtually unchecked. All land owners in an infestation area must coopera… Washington State Noxious Weed Control Board. "Effects of Kudzu (, Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park, Environmental issues in the United States, "Kudzu's invasion into Southern United States life and culture", "Controlling Kudzu With Naturally Occurring Fungus", "Fungus Tapped to Take on Kudzu : USDA ARS", Kudzu Gets Kudos as a Potential Biofuel, 2008, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kudzu_in_the_United_States&oldid=991870494, Invasive plant species in the United States, Articles with dead external links from February 2020, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2013, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 2 December 2020, at 06:27. Kudzu's ability to grow quickly, survive in areas of low nitrogen availability, and acquire resources quickly allows it to out-compete native species. Kudzu was cultivated by civilians who were paid $8 per hour to plant the vine on the top … ", Frye, Matthew J., Judith Hough-Goldstein, and Jiang-Hua Sun. It cannot be over emphasized that total eradication of kudzu is necessary to prevent re-growth. Its ability to reproduce and spread quickly allows it to quickly cover shrubs, trees, and forests, where it blocks the sun's rays from the plants below it, decreasing or completely eliminating their photosynthetic productivity. (18 cm) in width and grow to 9 ft. (3.8 m) deep. National Invasive Species Information Center, Early Detection & Distribution Mapping System (EDDMapS) - Kudzu, Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council Invasive Plant Manual - Kudzu, New York Invasive Species Information - Kudzu, Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER) -, The Quiet Invasion: A Guide to Invasive Species of the Galveston Bay Area - Kudzu, Japanese Arrowroot, Invasive Plants: Restricted Invasive Plants - Kudzu, Forest Pests: Invasive Plants and Insects of Maryland - Kudzu (Aug 2012) (PDF | 670 KB), Invasive Plants in Pennsylvania: Kudzu (PDF | 211 KB), Publications - Weed Control for Lawn and Garden, The History and Use of Kudzu in the Southeastern United States (2018), Introduced Species Summary Project - Kudzu, Invasive, Exotic Plants of the Southeast - Kudzu, Kudzu in Alabama: History, Uses, and Control (PDF | 1.46 MB). Department of the Environment and Energy. Today, somewhere between two and seven million acres in the southeastern United Stated are covered by kudzu. These methods, though more effective than herbicides, are more time-consuming. "Kudzu's invasion into Southern United States life and culture". Of these states, three in the southeast have the heaviest infestations: Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi.[18]. In China, kudzu root is used in herbal remedies, teas, and the treatment of alcohol-related problems. In China, kudzu is found on road embankments and in mountainous regions where cultivation of crops was not possible. Friday, 6th June 2014 by Kyle Kusch. [7] When evaluations of potential control agents are made, the range of the control agents must be taken into account. The .gov means it’s official.Federal government websites always use a .gov or .mil domain. European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. Google. Entomology and Plant Pathology. lobata is a climbing, deciduous vine capable of reaching lengths of over 100 ft. (30.5 m) in a single season. Maesen & S. M. Almeida ex Sanjappa & Predeep (ITIS), Introduced as an ornamental and for erosion control (Everest et al. Unfortunately it is because of climate change that kudzu has become as bad as it has in the southern US. The kudzu. University of Georgia. Estimates of the vine's spread vary, from the United States Forest Service's 2015 estimate of 2,500 acres (1,000 ha - 10 km²) per year to the Dep… [4], Kudzu is a perennial vine native to Asia, primarily subtropical and temperate regions of China, Japan, and Korea,[5][6] with trifoliate leaves composed of three leaflets. In the USA, kudzu has a wide geographic and climatic range but grows best in areas with at least 1000 mm annual rainfall, mild winters (5-15°C) and hot summers (above 25°C). The kudzu plant (Pueraria lobata) has a disjunct distribution in the southern islands of Japan and the southeast Asian mainland, as well as the United States. Kudzu is also known as foot-a-night vine, Japanese arrowroot, Ko-hemp, and “the vine that ate the South.” The vine, a legume, is a member of the bean family. Such a rise in potassium levels by solarization is important for soils in the Southeastern United States that tend to be highly weathered and generally have low potassium contents. [7][22], Another form of chemical removal other than herbicides is soil solarization. Kudzu… [18] In the 135 years since its introduction, kudzu has spread over three million hectares (ha) of the southern United States, and continues to 'consume' the south at an estimated rate of 50,000 hectares (120,000 acres) per year, destroying power lines, buildings, and native vegetation in its path. [6] This ability allows it to flourish in nitrogen-poor sites where other plants are unable to grow. [11] In Korea, kudzu grows in areas where the temperature can drop to −22 °F (−30 °C). [7] For sexual reproduction, kudzu is entirely dependent on pollinators. A different survey found twenty-five different species of insect feeding on the kudzu. SUNUP TV. ", Adams, Nicole E., et al. North Carolina State University. Provides kudzu resources from sources with an interest in the prevention, control, or eradication of invasive species. University of Florida. [7], Although kudzu prefers forest regrowth and edge habitats with high sun exposure, the plant can survive in full sun or partial shade. Disease development is very high at around 30 °C to 40 °C, which matches field conditions. Maryland Department of Natural Resources. Provides kudzu resources from sources with an interest in the prevention, control, or eradication of invasive species. The plant was widely marketed as an ornamental plant that would provide shade for porches as well as a high protein content for livestock fodder and as a cover for soil erosion in the 20th century. [16] The Soil Erosion Service recommended the use of kudzu to help control erosion of slopes which led to the government-aided distribution of 85 million seedlings and government-funded plantings of kudzu which paid $19.75 per hectare. A. Webster, C.R. ", Marshall, Jessica "Kudzu Gets Kudos as a Potential Biofuel". [1] This has earned it the nickname "the vine that ate the South". Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. ARS. At Keanae kudzu smothers hau thickets and is poised to invade taro loi. C ompletely covers vegetation and structures. Center for Environmental Research and Conservation. 2014-70006-22485. Kudzu is an invasive plant species in the United States. However, one major drawback of this biological control agent is that it is highly toxic to mammals, so extreme care would have to be taken in handling this organism. It can survive through harsh hot temperatures and dry seasons. By the early 20th century, southerners began to use kudzu for purposes other than ornamentation and so kudzu began to come closer in contact with the land which, in turn, encouraged its spread throughout the southeast. [2] Estimates of the vine's spread vary, from the United States Forest Service's 2015 estimate of 2,500 acres (1,000 ha - 10 km²) per year[3] to the Department of Agriculture's estimate of as much as 150,000 acres (61,000 ha - 610 km²) annually. Of the plants that can successfully compete with kudzu, many are other invasive species such as the Chinese privet and the Japanese honeysuckle. Provides state, county, point and GIS data. Pueraria montana var. Jr., I.N. "Biology and Preliminary Host Range Assessment of Two Potential Kudzu Biological Control Agents. Revegetation of sites following treatment is an important last step to ensure that any residual kudzu does not reestablish. Once established, kudzu grows at a rate of one foot per day with mature vines as long as 100 feet. [7] By 1946, it was estimated that 1,200,000 hectares (3,000,000 acres) of kudzu had been planted. Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants. [15] There are several biological means that are already in place and more that may be implemented to control the growth of kudzu. Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. Washington State Recreation and Conservation Office. This part must also be destroyed to prevent re-implantation. When young, stems are covered with stiff bronze hairs, becoming woody when mature. Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, Galveston Bay Estuary Program; Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC). Leaflets may be entire or deeply lobed. [7] As a twining vine, kudzu uses stems or tendrils that can extend from any node on the vine to attach to and climb most surfaces. [11] Kudzu is also used as a food crop in Java, Sumatra, and Malaya, and can be found in Puerto Rico and South America. [20] In the United States, kudzu is extensively reported in Alabama, Arkansas, Washington, D.C., Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Missouri, Mississippi, North Carolina, North Dakota, New Jersey, Oregon, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia. [23], As chemical treatments are often ineffective for long term control and mechanical removal is likewise difficult and costly for long-term control, kudzu makes a good candidate for biological pest control. True. Outside its native range, kudzu has been widely introduced to the eastern United States and is found from New York to Florida, and as far west as Texas. Primary kudzu roots can weigh over 180 kg, grow to 18 cm in diameter, and penetrate soil at a rate of 3 cm in depth per day. lobata) as a feedstock for livestock. This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. You map prompted me to check whether it's found in British Columbia. The word is a corruption of “kuzu,“ the Japanese name for the plant. lobata (Willd.) Google. Kudzu Pueraria montana : Description: Kudzu is a fast-growing, climbing, semi-woody perennial vine in the pea family. Kudzu Kudzu (Pueraria lobata) Fast-growing, deciduous, perennial vine. Roots are fleshy with taproot up to 12 feet deep . The https:// means all transmitted data is encrypted — in other words, any information or browsing history that you provide is transmitted securely. Soil solarization is a thermal (heat) method that utilizes solar-enhanced heating of the soil to kill the root system of the plant, thereby avoiding the use of pesticides and other more dangerous (fire-based) means to control the plant. Kudzu grows best where winters are mild, summer temperatures are above 80°F and annual rainfall is 40 inches or more. A small herd can reduce an acre (0.4 ha) of kudzu every day. Distribution Map. [21] Kudzu is also able to allocate large portions of carbon to root growth, allowing it to acquire sufficient nutrients for rapid growth and to spread clonally. Native to eastern Asia, the perennial vine known as kudzu was introduced to the southeastern United States in the late 19th century as an ornamental plant to provide shade for porches. 1999). [7] When boll weevil infestations and the failure of cotton crops caused farmers to abandon their farms, kudzu plantings were left unattended. Kudzu was introduced into the US in 1878 from Japan as a Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia and New Orleans in 1883 during an exposition. Vines are 1 to 4 inches thick. These include mechanical, chemical, and biological methods. Kudzu grows well under a wide range of conditions and in many soil types. [7][14] In Korea, kudzu root is harvested for its starch, which is used in various foods including naengmyon, as well as a health food and herbal medicine. Everest, J.W., J.H. United States Kudzu Range Map. They reduce the environment to impoverished "vine barrens". This site is also protected by an SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) certificate that’s been signed by the U.S. government. While they may admit that Kudzu was deliberately sown by the US Soil Conservation Service to reduce soil erosion, they just as quickly say that it is a noxious, invasive plant that should be avoided at all cost. [citation needed], Bill Finch, "Legend of the Green Monster," Smithsonian Magazine, vol. In Vicksburg, kudzu has invaded 190 of the 2,000 total acres of the park and threatens to diminish the historical value of the park. [5][7] Today, kudzu is estimated to cover 3,000,000 hectares (7,400,000 acres) of land in the southeastern United States, mostly in Alabama, Georgia, Tennessee, Florida, North Carolina, South Carolina and Mississippi. Kudzu kills or damages other plants by smothering them under a blanket of leaves, encompassing tree trunks, breaking branches, or even uprooting entire trees. [7], In addition to its abilities to obtain nutrients and spread quickly, kudzu leaves have paraheliotropic movements, meaning that they move in response to the movement of the sun in order to maximize photosynthetic productivity. Or, to display all related content view all resources for Kudzu. Kudzu has also expanded into non‐analog climates in the invasive range that are not found in the native range, including parts of south‐central (western Texas, northern Louisiana, Arkansas) and western (Washington, Oregon, California) United States (Fig. [7] Along the vines are nodes, points at which stems or tendrils can propagate to increase support and attach to structures. Ontario's Invading Species Awareness Program (Canada). [7] Kudzu is also a "structural parasite", meaning that, rather than supporting itself, it grows on top of other plants and buildings to reach light. The higher level of potassium in all soils undergoing solarization demonstrates the successful release of K from decomposing kudzu plant tissues. Before sharing sensitive information online, make sure you’re on a .gov or .mil site by inspecting your browser’s address (or “location”) bar. "Kudzu Root: An Ancient Chinese Source of Modern Antidipsotrophic Agents. Kudzu growing near the Mississippi river in Baton Rouge. [7][8] Five species in the genus Pueraria (P. montana, P. lobata, P. edulis, P. phaseoloides and P. thomsoni) are closely related and kudzu populations in the United States seem to have ancestry from more than one of the species. Species native to the U.S. are included when they are invasive in areas well outside their … The most prominent effect of this method of control is the increase in potassium. Grows up to one foot per day. Appearance Pueraria montana var. It was first introduced to North America in 1876 in the Japanese pavilion at the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition. Our species profiles include selected highly relevant resources for the species (organized by source), and access to all species related resources included on our site. Potential control agents have to be rejected if they are shown in laboratory and field tests to feed on these non-target plants. Integrated Taxonomic Information System. [17], Kudzu was intentionally introduced to North America by the Soil Erosion Service and Civilian Conservation Corps in the 1930s for the purpose of controlling soil erosion in the American Southeast. Kudzu is an invasive plant that was introduced in the United States for erosion control, but the environmental Kudzu vines, Pueraria montana, covering trees and a hillside in North Carolina. Linda Crampton from British Columbia, Canada on July 18, 2019: I've never had to deal with kudzu. Pennsylvania Sea Grant. [8], A different and less time-consuming option for the control of kudzu is treatment with herbicides. Our species profiles include selected highly relevant resources for the species (organized by source), and access to all species related resources included on our site. Click on an acronym to view each weed list, or click here for a composite list of Weeds of the U.S. "Landscaping to Conserve Energy", Keung, W.M. One case study saw a significant decrease in the growth of kudzu after just two years, whereas another study required the use of the herbicide for up to ten years. Hickman, Jonathan E., Shiliang Wu, Loretta J. Mickey, and Manuel T. Lerdau. It was cultivated by Civilian Conservation Corps workers as a solution for the erosion during the Dust Bowl. In addition, the fungus does not spread outside of areas where it is applied. The Department of Agriculture’s National Agricultural Library says this about kudzu: ————— Scientific name: Pueraria montana; a subdivision of Phaseoleae, the group that includes peas and beans. [5], Kudzu's primary method of reproduction is asexual vegetative spread (cloning) which is aided by the ability to root wherever a stem is exposed to soil. IFAS. [7], Currently, grazing by goats and pigs is the best method for control of the vine. 2006. The maximum length the vine can reach is 30 m (98 feet).

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