granulite facies tectonic setting

Segregation of leucogranite microplutons during syn‐anatectic deformation: an example from the Taylor Valley, Antarctica. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, P–T Conditions, Mechanism and Timing of the Localized Melting of Metapelites from the Petronella Shear Zone and Relationships with Granite Intrusions in the Southern Marginal Zone of the Limpopo Belt, South Africa. Melting, carbonic fluids and water recycling in the deep crust: an example from the Limpopo Belt, South Africa. The formation of the EGMB–Rayner Complex and the other Grenvillian orogens girdling the Antarctic-South Australian Craton (Mawson continent) during the late Mesoproterozoic and the early Neoproterozoic (1300–900 Ma) was in response to the collision of Mawson continent with the marginal cratons such as Southern Africa, India, and Western Australia during Rodinia assembly. This new understanding will result directly in decreasing the number of orogenic belts that can be interpreted plausibly as sutures. In other words, the concept implies a continuity of the Archaean Dharwar rocks further south of the defined boundary. The opening of the Mesoproterozoic rift between India and east Antarctica subsequent to the breakup of Columbia may have formed a large oceanic basin between the two where in the sedimentary sequences of the EGMB were deposited (Zhao et al., 2004). It is tectonically juxtaposed with the Jaishidanda Formation. Mount Isa) during the Proterozoic. In article View Article [5] Geochronology and geochemistry of the enderbite series in the Lapland Granulite Belt: generation, tectonic setting, and correlation of the belt11NORDSIM Publication No. Partial crustal melting beneath the Betic Cordillera (SE Spain): The case study of Mar Menor volcanic suite. Albite = Jadeite + Qtz ( At 200.c/ 7.5 k-bar & 300.c/ 9.5 k-bar ) Calcite = Aragonite (Caco 3 This age is also highly coeval with the timing of the nearby mantle–derived mafic intrusions (∼257 Ma) The ridges are composed of volcanic mountains that erupt basalt onto the surface of the ocean and by that process create new oceanic crust. Chakrabarti, in Geology of the Himalayan Belt, 2016. Spatially‐focussed melt formation in aluminous metapelites from Broken Hill, Australia. Ukwang, E. E. and Ekwueme, B. N. (2009). Leucogranulites from the Bohemian Massif. Reassessment of the nature of granulite-facies metamorphism leads to the recognition of the within-plate and plume-related origin of major granulite–gneiss belts. Divergent boundaries are characterized by a rift in the surface of the earth along the midocean ridges. Regional granulite facies metamorphic terrains occur in all continents and Harley (1989) has listed more than eighty such terrains. [1] The assemblage is typical of what is formed in conditions corresponding to an area on the two dimensional graph of temperature vs. pressure (See diagram in Figure 1). Granulite facies metapelite, biotite gneiss and metabasic gneiss in Namaqualand contain coarse‐grained, discordant, unfoliated, anhydrous segregations, surrounded by a finer grained, foliated matrix that commonly includes hydrous minerals. The above-mentioned features indicate that the EGMB-south may represent an exotic terrane accreted to the Indian craton at c. 1.6 Ga, as a fragment of the Napier Complex of Antarctica and simultaneously connected to parts of Proterozoic Australia. The original eclogite-facies mineral assemblage in the mafic rocks has been strongly overprinted by granulite facies metamorphism at 750 C and 0.7–0.8 GPa. Swapp and Hollister (1991) reported the mineral assemblage in the LSL formed at 480–500°C and 7 kb, predating a penetrative fabric related to an event of deformation. Thermal gradient and geochronology of a Paleozoic high-grade terrane in the northeastern Cathaysia block, South China. Although igneous textures were not observed, the homogeneity, massive nature, and the presence of enclaves within the charnockite gneisses of the NGB indicate an igneous origin for the protoliths. 28(3), pp. Metamorphic petrologists studying contact metamorphism early in the 20th century introduced the idea of metamorphic facies (part of a rock or group of rocks that differs from the whole formation) to correlate metamorphic events. Further volcanic rocks and metasedimentary rocks were deposited between ∼1765 and ∼1735 Ma (McGregor Volcanics, Moonabie Formation, and Wallaroo Group). These facies are found in crustal tectonic setting or subduction zone. Garnet–Whole-rock REE Relationships and Zircon–Rutile Ti–Zr Thermometry in Intrusive rocks of the Donnington Granitoid Suite (∼1850 Ma) were emplaced synchronously with a deformation event that has been regarded as an early tectonic phase of the Kimban Orogeny (Figure 3). Chinese Journal of Geochemistry, vol. Consequently, brines are probably more effective deep crustal transport agents, and have the potential to cause metasomatic effects, including alkali metasomatism and regional rubidium depletion, owing to their high chlorine contents and alkali exchange capacities (cf. Harlov et al., 1997; Smit and Van Reenen, 1997). 4.4a). The creation of the first supercontinent at the end of the Archaean (section 3.2), covering a significant part of the Earth’s surface, must have played an essential role in the reorganisation of the convection cell system in the underlying mantle. Some Remarks on Melting and Extreme Metamorphism of Crustal Rocks. Isotopic constraints on fluid infiltration from an eclogite facies shear zone, Holsenøy, Norway. (a) Development of patches of charnokite lenses and screens (dark brown bodies) in Peninsular Gneiss. (b) Relict traces of banding in granulite from southeastern part of the Dharwar Protocontinent. Other workers consider the formation of orthopyroxene to be typical of granulite facies conditions, although this occurs at significantly higher temperatures (100–150 ¯C higher) than does formation of K-feldspar + Al-silicate. Cordierite as a sensor of fluid conditions in high‐grade metamorphism and crustal anatexis. Several bodies of charnockite and other granulite facies rocks occur in close association with garnet-bearing gneisses (Fig. At least 12 granulite occurrences, ranging in size from a few 10’s to 250,000 km2, are exposed in the Archean Superior Province. Outcrop features of granulite-facies migmatites; Vein-like and patchy charnockite in southern India; Metamorphic history of the Namaqualand granulites. medium-pressure granulite-facies metamorphism in the southern Nawa Domain (Cutts et al. The LSL is positioned at the central region of the HHC, much higher up from the MCT. Farther north is a granulite facies gneiss complex, the Qinling Group, which has ultramafic slivers and includes the remnants of an island arc with two bounding suture zones. A.B. The rocks were subject to deformation at middle to lower crustal levels under granulite and upper amphibolite facies conditions during the Scourian event between c.2,650 Ma to 2,480 Ma. Geologic setting 2.1 Regional geology The eastern Himalayan syntaxis (EHS) (Fig.1) is the eastern termination of the A – type granite this type is formed from per-alkaline to alkaline magma (Al2O3 < Na2O + K2O) which forms Alkali Feldspar Granite from partial melting of continental crust and granulite rocks or fractionation in the crust. (2002) made a division of this sequence into two segments with a thrust in between, the Kaghtang Thrust. Following accretion to the North Australian Craton, the site of subduction may have moved to the south-western Gawler Craton (Figure 4) with the development of the first tectonic episode of the Kararan Orogeny (1710–1670 Ma) and the intrusion of voluminous granitic rocks of the Tunkillia Suite in a possible back-arc setting. The Archaean architecture of the complex was completed by intrusion of granite sheets and pegmatites around 2,550 Ma, mainly in the Outer Hebrides. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior. Geochemical signatures of metasedimentary rocks of high-pressure granulite facies and their relation with partial melting: Carvalhos Klippe, Southern Brasília Belt, Brazil. It seems probable that the start of plume-related evolution could be the same in both high-and low-grade mobile belts. naceous facies in the east and calcareous facies in the west (Heron, 1953; Sen, 1981). The leucogranites intruded the country rocks, which were already heated past the second sillimanite isograds and were deformed penetratively. 8.3D). Tyler, in Encyclopedia of Geology, 2005. 2010). Roy, Ritesh Purohit, in Indian Shield, 2018. This contribution ... and tectonic setting remains unclear. Very high density CO2 associated with ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism in the Eastern Ghats granulite belt, India. Conditions during the formation of granitic magmas by crustal melting – hot or cold; drenched, damp or dry?. After Veevers, J.J. (2009). U–Pb SHRIMP ages and tectonic setting of the Munster Suite of the Margate Terrane of the Natal Metamorphic Belt. The amphibolite to granulite facies rocks overlying the MCT occupies a vast expanse of Bhutan and is named the Thimphu Group/Great Himalayan Zone/HHC/Tibetan Slab (Fig. Concentrated aqueous solutions of strong electrolytes, including (Na,K)Cl, would have low aH2O, as would CO2-rich fluids. The second tectonic phase involved the intrusion of the St Peter Suite (1630–1608 Ma) as a continental magmatic arc, and probably reflects accretion of continental blocks from the west, now buried beneath the Phanerozoic Eucla Basin. 2. We thus postulate that Palaeoproterozoic history can be subdivided into five periods: (1) 2.51–2.44 Ga superplume activity and displacement of Fennoscandia; (2) 2.44–2.0 (2.11) Ga quiescent within-plate development complicated by local plume-and plate tectonics-related processes (see also section 3.7); (3) a 2.0–1.95 Ga superplume event (see also sections 3.2 and 3.3); (4) 1.95–1.75 (1.71) Ga combined plume-and plate tectonics-related evolution, resulting in the partial disruption of the continental crust, and formation of accretionary orogens along some margins of the supercontinent, and rebirth of the supercontinent entity, and (5) < 1.75 Ga post-and anorogenic magmatism and metamorphism. Charnockitization of feldspar-free orthopyroxene-clinopyroxene-phlogopite metaultramafite in the lapland granulite belt, southern Kola Peninsula: Compositional trends of rocks and minerals, P-T parameters, and fluid regime. With the recognition that much of the intrusion, metamorphism, and deformation in the Buller and Takaka terranes (‘Tuhua Orogen’) occurred during the Cretaceous (of ‘Rangitata’ age), the orogen terminology became obsolete. Trace element geochemistry and tectonic setting characterization of granulite facies rocks from southwest Obudu Plateau, southeastern Nigeria. Swapp and Holister (1991) studied the amphibolite and sillimanite–granulite facies rocks of Gansser (1983). Granulite facies metamorphism in the Mallee Bore area, northern Harts Range: implications for the thermal evolution of the eastern Arunta Inlier, central Australia. Insights into the complexity of crustal differentiation: K2O‐poor leucosomes within metasedimentary migmatites from the Southern Marginal Zone of the Limpopo Belt, South Africa. timing of the peak and retrograde metamorphism for the granulites, the tectonic position of the HP granulite terrane and tectonic evolution in the eastern Himalayan syntaxis in an attempt to resolve this controversy. Columbia had a long-lived history of subduction related growth via accretion at important continental margins for nearly 500 Myr and a correlation of major accretionary belts of c. 1760–1700 Ma orogenesis around the preexisting cratons involving Laurentia, Antarctica, South Africa, and Australia including the eastern margin of India was proposed (Zhao, Sun, Wilde, & Li, 2004). However, the terrane shows sporadic occurrence of granulite, tectonic slices of ophiolite, blue schist and basement 2012; and references therein). The characteristic features which shed light on their P-T history are reviewed by . In several outcrops especially in the northern part, south of the east–west trending ‘isograd line’, the charnockite occurs either in the form of small lenses or as diffused stains of charnockitic mass described as ‘patchy charnockite’ within the intensely deformed tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite gneisses (Fig. The interpretation was further extended that the EGMB-south represents a part of an exotic terrane, which was transferred to proto-India in the late Paleoproterozoic as part of a linear accretionary orogenic belt that may also have included south-west Baltica and southeastern Laurentia. The metapelite-dominated schist horizon overlying the Sure Formation is named the Naspe Formation (Paro Formation of Gansser, 1983), which consists of a thick interlayered sequence of kyanite–staurolite–garnet–mica schist, commonly graphitic, along with dolomite (Golani, 1995). The Namaqualand Metamorphic Complex contains granulite facies rocks formed in two or more thermotectonic cycles during the mid-Proterozoic. In the early 1980s it was realized that the Mesozoic Rangitata Orogeny was probably a composite of an older subduction-related event and a younger extension-related event. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. As already discussed, medium-pressure regional metamorphic zones are best developed in Al-rich metapelitic rocks, which may contain either kyanite or sillimanite, or both Al-silicates. Water budget and partial melting in an Archean crustal column: example from the Dharwar Craton, India. Seemingly disparate temperatures recorded in coexisting granulite facies lithologies. The low–pressure granulite–facies metamorphism at Wuqiagou area is probably associated with the late magmatic activities in the southern Chinese Altay. Chinese Journal of Geochemistry, vol. The steep mélanges may represent zones of strike-slip deformation. Miyashiro (1961) proposed five facies series, most of them named for a specific representative “ type locality” The series were: 1. The transition from blueschist to eclogite facies (line 7, in Figure 5) is a very gradual boundary. The greenschist–amphibolite facies boundary (line 2, in Figure 5) is characterized in mafic rocks by the relatively abrupt increase of the calcium (anorthite)-content of plagioclase and by a simultaneous increase of the tschermak- and edenite-content of amphibole. According to them, the P-T condition of the last equilibration in the HSL was about 630°C and 4 kb. granulitic slab suggest emplacement in a brittle extensional setting whereas garnet coronas attest to subsequent burial under high-pressure (HP) granulite facies at relatively high temperature. These ages and the chemistry of charnockites are consistent with the formation by accretionary processes at the southern margin of the Dharwar craton. New constraints on metamorphism in the Rauer Group, Prydz Bay, east Antarctica. In this paper, we summarize the Proterozoic tectonother- mal evolution of the Broken Hill Block in light of structural, metamorphic and geochronological analysis conducted within a high-temperature shear zone located in the south of the terrane (Forbes et al., 2005, 2007). The Takhsang Formation is composed of garnet–sillimanite–biotite gneiss largely devoid of muscovite (Golani, 1995, p. 96), which, if present, occurs as a second-generation grain. Mountain belts developed in an intracratonic set- ting during the Neoproterozoic in the center of Australia. A similar approach was applied to the description and interpretation of the granulite-gneiss complexes of the Grenville-Sveconorwegian … At higher levels, the granite gneiss rock is replaced by augen gneiss, which contains large feldspar porphyroblasts, and biotite content is more than in the lower level Sure gneiss. Partial melting in amphibolites in a deep section of the Sveconorwegian Orogen, SW Sweden. Metamorphism and Plate Tectonics At present, the geothermal gradients observed are strongly affected by plate tectonics. Fluid composition and propagation in the deep crust: Case studies from the Limpopo Complex, South Africa. Mafics are subordinate in the rock, and muscovite is conspicuous by its presence in the Sure gneiss. Charnockitic alteration: evidence for CO2 infiltration in granulite facies metamorphism. The ages of granulite facies metamorphism in the southern part of the Dharwar Protocontinent range between 2500 ± 50 and 2540 ± 17 Ma (Hansen et al., 1997). The most common mineral assemblage of granulite facies consists of antiperthitic plagioclase, alkali feldspar containing up to 50% albite and Al 2 O 3-rich pyroxenes. Protolith lithostratigraphy of the Greater Himalayan Series in Langtang, Nepal: implications for the architecture of the northern Indian margin. Tectonics Metamorphic Facies Metamorphism And Plate Tectonics If you ally craving such a referred metamorphic facies metamorphism and plate tectonics book that will present you worth, get the definitely best seller from us currently from several preferred authors. Clockwise, low- metamorphism of the Aus granulite terrain, southern Namibia, during the Mesoproterozoic Namaqua Orogeny. Skip to main content Accessibility help We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites. Formation and emplacement of two contrasting late-Mesoproterozoic magma types in the central Namaqua Metamorphic Complex (South Africa, Namibia): Evidence from geochemistry and geochronology. The upper segment of the sequence contains migmatitic gneisses, leucogranite, and high-grade metasedimentaries, while the lower part is composed of quartzite, schists, paragneiss, and granite orthogneiss. The latest, most widespread and intense event at c.1150 Ma gave rise to low-P granulites which record an anticlockwise P-T path and were accompanied by gneissic granite and charnockite. See also Palin et al. In mafic rocks, the greenschist–amphibolite facies transition is designated by the appearance of hornblende and Ca-rich plagioclase and the disappearance of actinolite and Na-rich plagioclase. The model endorses that the EGMB–south represents a fraction of an exotic terrane that was transferred to proto-India in the late Paleoproterozoic (1.68–1.6 Ga). Metamorphism probably took place in the deep parts of a Jurassic–Early Cretaceous accretionary wedge. Summary of the assembly and breakup history of India-Antarctica through different stages. Exhumation of the Haast Schist belt was episodic, with most of the schist being at the surface by 105 Ma and deeper levels being exhumed along the Alpine Fault from 20 Ma to the present day. Considering the worldwide decrease of magmatic activity from c. 2.45 to 2.2 Ga, Condie (1994b) argued that deep-seated heat generation processes in the Earth could not have been significantly lower during that period. Granulite is a high-grade metamorphic rock containing granular minerals, typically red garnet mixed with grains of pyroxene, quartz, and feldspars formed under great heat without melting. Thermal perturbation on a regional scale might have been induced by asthenospheric upwelling following slab break-off at relatively shallow depth and consequent production of basaltic magma emplaced in the lower crust. The main ocean closure was probably some where in ice-covered central East Antarctica within inferred blocks of 1.2–0.8 Ga mafic granitoids. A variety of mechanisms for generating low aH2O fluids have been proposed, including infiltration of connate brines or fluids equilibrated with metaevaporites, loss of H2O to anatectic melts leaving behind residual fluids enriched in salts and CO2 (Fyfe, 1973; Philippot, 1993), release of brines and CO2 from deep crustal intrusions (Hansen et al., 1995), and loss of H2O to retrograde rehydration reactions (Markl et al., 1998). The latest, most widespread and intense event at c.1150 Ma gave rise to low-P granulites which record an anticlockwise P-T path and were accompanied by gneissic granite and charnockite. Although this history indicates the overwhelming importance of … Large‐scale fluid infiltration, metasomatism and re‐equilibration of Archaean basement granulites during Palaeoproterozoic thrust belt construction, Ungava Orogen, Canada. Richard Palin (2008): P-T-time paths and tectonic correlation in the Karakoram Metamorphic Complex. Crystallization of Heterogeneous Pelitic Migmatites: Insights from Thermodynamic Modelling. 248-257. In the Curnamona Craton, the shallow-marine, immature clastic sedimentary rocks and bimodal volcanics of the Willyama Supergroup were deposited between ∼1715 and ∼1645 Ma. The second phase of the orogeny produced medium- to high-pressure/high-temperature metamorphism and associated deformation. On ultrahigh temperature crustal metamorphism: Phase equilibria, trace element thermometry, bulk composition, heat sources, timescales and tectonic settings. Buchan or Abukuma Facies Series (low -P regional) 3. A metamorphic facies is a set of mineral assemblages in metamorphic rocks formed under similar pressures and temperatures. This proposal is supported by the recently obtained U–Pb zircon data from the EGMB-south, which preserves a record of a prolonged accretionary process that started in the arc-continent collision and culminated in the continent–continent collision (Pacific-type) during c. 1850–1600 Ma (Vijaya Kumar, Ernst, Leelanandam, Wooden, & Groves, 2009). Figure 6.12. The base of the Tethyan Himalayan exposure has been mapped as the Chekha Formation, containing quartzite and garnetiferous schist and assigned a Neoproterozoic/Cambrian age overlain by Cambrian to younger fossiliferous horizons. Based on the isotopic, geological, and geochemical similarities, the proposed exotic terrane may represent an extension of the Napier Complex, Antarctica, and possibly connected to Proterozoic Australia (North Australian Craton and Gawler Craton). The segregations have modes consistent with the hypothesis that they are the solid and liquid products of the dehydration‐melting reactions: Bt + Sil + Qtz + PI = Grt ° Crd + Kfs + L (metapelite), Bt + Qtz + Pl = Opx + Kfs + L (biotite gneiss), and Hbl + Qtz = Opx + Cpx + Pl + L (metabasic gneiss). Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Some of the gneisses are confined to the lower plates of two Cretaceous metamorphic core complexes in the South Island (stars in Figure 2). In view of this, a feasible explanation for the inferred stability of the supercontinent during the early Palaeoproterozoic and for the scarcity of subduction events along its margins, may lie in the assumption of intensive recycling of juvenile oceanic and young arc-related crust within the oceanic hemisphere (cf. The hot central and upper portion together were rapidly exhumed during and after the thrusting event. Working off-campus? 322. 248-257. Geochemical and Sr―Nd isotopic constraints on the origin of volcanic rocks from the northern Okinawa Trough. Metamorphism of Pelitic Rocks (Metapelites). 4.3), banded iron formation, calc-silicate rocks, quartzites, and amphibolites in the southern part of the Dharwar Protocontinent. New approaches to crustal evolution studies and the origin of granitic rocks: what can the Lu-Hf and Re-Os isotope systems tell us?. The 90 Ma Kigluaik pluton forms the core of a granulite facies gneiss dome and is Petrology of an intrusion‐related high‐grade migmatite: implications for partial melting of metasedimentary rocks and leucosome‐forming processes. 8.3). However, the highest grade rocks in sillimanite (±cordierite) zone of Pecher and Le Fort (1986) containing leucogranites were shown by Gansser (1983) under sillimanite–granulite facies. Lithologic and geochemical comparisons show that supracrustal assemblages in the amphibolite- and granulite-facies terrains of southern India formed in different tectonic settings and had different sediment sources. Dehydration reaction and isotope front transport induced by CO2 infiltration at Nuliyam, South India. Learn about our remote access options, Department of Geology, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, 7700 South Africa. From: Ultrahigh-Pressure Metamorphism, 2011, B.K. The granulite facies is determined by the lower temperature boundary of 700 +/− 50 °C and the pressure range of 2–15 kb. The internal domain corresponds to the crystalline core of the orogen and comprises high amphibolite to granulite facies rocks of the Juiz de Fora Complex (Alkmim et al., 2007). Lamb and Valley, 1984; Crawford and Hollister, 1986; B. R. Frost and C. D. Frost, 1987; Newton, 1995; Aranovich and Newton, 1996, 1997, 1998, and numerous references cited therein). Mesoproterozoic granulite and amphibolite facies gneisses of the Musgrave Block were overprinted during the Petermann Orogeny (-550 Ma)with zones of high strain concentrated along broadly east-west trending shear zones. All the tectonothermal events in the region including the UHT metamorphism can be considered as part of this accretionary process. The plume-related riftogenic and spreading processes within the continental areas can be attributed to “weak attempts” to disrupt the supercontinent (Mints, 1998). The retrograde P–T–t path for low‐pressure granulites from the Reynolds Range, central Australia: petrological constraints and implications for low‐P/high‐T metamorphism. Garnet occurs sporadically (Golani, 1995). Regional metamorphism at extreme conditions: Implications for orogeny at convergent plate margins. . The assemblage is typical of what is formed in conditions corresponding to an area on the two dimensional graph of temperature vs. pressure (See diagram in Figure 1). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences. Metamorphism of Quartzofeldspathic Rocks. Granulites and charnockites of the Gruf Complex: Evidence for Permian ultra-high temperature metamorphism in the Central Alps. sent day, different plate tectonic settings exhibit contrasts in heat flow that are registered as differing metamorphic facies series in distinct crustal terranes (Miyashiro, 1961), although how far back in time these relationships are reliable is unclear. Rb depletion in biotites and whole rocks across an amphibolite to granulite facies transition zone, Tamil Nadu, South India. Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. Santosh & Kusky 2010; Santosh alet. The model of eastern India forming a part of the linear accretionary system encompassing south-eastern Laurentia and Baltica accounts for the magmatism and metamorphism recorded in the EGMB-south (Ongole Domain) between 1.72 and 1.6 Ga leading up to continent–continent collision at c. 1.6 Ga. Accretionary orogenesis might have been possibly terminated by the collision that developed between EGMB-central and Rayner Complex at c. 1 Ga (Mezger & Cosca, 1999). The mass balance of dehydration melting in typical biotite gneiss and metapelite shows that the proportion of melt in the product assemblage at T± 850°C is relatively small (10–20%), and probably insufficient to mobilize a partially melted rock body. Experimental Study of the Melting Reaction and Genetic Mechanism of Mineral Phase Transformation in Granulite Facies Metamorphism. The duration of granulite (G) and ultra–high temperature (UHT) conditions in regional metamorphism is critical to arguments regarding the tectonic settings of … Retrograde melt–residue interaction and the formation of near‐anhydrous leucosomes in migmatites. The spatial and temporal patterning of the deep crust and implications for the process of melt extraction.

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