dwarf galaxy catalog

Among these, 22 are classified as "Interacting Merger" (IM), where the boundary between the interacting galaxies can no longer be clearly identified. Our morphological classification reveals that there are 98 interacting dwarf galaxy systems. Therefore, we believe our sample will be more complete for these kinds of objects, as long as the interacting pairs show similar low-surface-brightness features as presented by our sample. However, we emphasize that we only use the aperture photometry of the individual interacting galaxies to calculate their mass ratios. It is based on the Lyon-Meudon Extragalactic Database (LEDA), which was originally started in 1983. Category:Principal Galaxies Catalogue objects, Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplement Series, PGC info at ESO's archive of astronomical catalogues, Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Principal_Galaxies_Catalogue&oldid=983670661, Articles with infoboxes completely from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 15 October 2020, at 15:32. The first bin of the histogram includes 13 systems (17% of the total) that can be considered equal mass mergers. However, note that this magnitude cutoff is only to select the parent sample and we apply a further stellar mass constrain to select the final sample. From this figure, it is clear that these interacting dwarfs galaxies do not differ from the trend established by local-volume, star-forming galaxies. 2010-0027910) through the NRF of Korea and from the Yonsei University Observatory—KASI Joint Research Program (2018). However, in some cases, the shell dwarfs do not show such symmetry in their shells (e.g., Id11253803) and in two we find that shell and tidal tails features coexist with each other (Id11253803 and Id11292034). Streams. The median neighbor number of merging dwarf systems in this sample is 4. The possibilities that certain low-mass early-type galaxies (or dEs) might also be formed through mergers, similar to massive ellipticals, has been speculated in order to explain peculiar observational properties such as kinematically decoupled cores and boxy shape isophotes (Geha et al. The fraction of early-type dwarf galaxies is only 3 out of 177. We present the morphological classes of the merging dwarf systems, obtained according to Section 2.2, in column 10. were very helpful for visual confirmation of the presence of low-surface-brightness features around dwarf galaxies. By continuing to use this site you agree to our use of cookies. (2015), although the full catalog of 104 dwarf–dwarf pair galaxies with the names and positions of the galaxies has yet to be publicly released. (2009). Column (3): g-r color. This is the first publicly available catalog in this vein. DataTypeset images: 1 2 3. You will only need to do this once. There are three dwarf galaxies (Id0202-0922, Id1448-0342, Id14503534) that can be considered dwarf analogs to the Antennae system (NGC 4038/4039). However, for this particular work, we focus on dwarf–dwarf interactions. Published 2018 August 22, galaxies: dwarf; galaxies: evolution; galaxies: interactions; galaxies: star formation. They are mostly gas-rich and star-forming systems, located in low-density environments. Our visual inspection process involves multiple steps. We made 2D-decompositions of the identified galaxies using GALFIT, … 1973; Barnes & Hibbard 2009; Struck & Smith 2012; Duc & Renaud 2013). We show a simple histogram of the number of galaxies (which include both giants and dwarfs) found in the search area in Figure 11. At the top of each row, we list the identifications of these galaxies according to Table 1. One reason we see no clear enhancement in SFR could be because we do not attempt to control for separation distance. The last bin (the gray histogram) represents the number of merging dwarf systems that have more than 10 neighbors within our search area. However, for dwarf galaxies, a 10 km s−1 velocity dispersion can make a significant contribution to the internal dynamics. We have conducted a systematic search for dwarf galaxies possessing tidal features, such as stellar streams, shells, or filaments, through a careful examination of the SDSS images. Another interesting difference is that S15 found there is an enhanced SFR between dwarf galaxies at small separations from their partner, compared to a control sample of isolated dwarf galaxies. Download table as:  Number 2. Therefore, the determination of DM is more problematic. Figure 7. 2007), the assembly of large-scale structure happens in a hierarchical fashion, and mergers play a fundamental role in both the growth and evolution of galaxies (Conselice et al. Star-forming objects may be preferentially selected because of the criterion to have a redshift, and it is easy to measure the redshifts from the emission lines of star-forming galaxies than from the absorption lines of non star-forming galaxies. There are many dwarf galaxies orbiting ours. We show examples of these two classes in Figure 1. Find out more. The cataloged objects are designated with a "2MASS" and "2MASX"-prefix respectively. Despite the very similar visual morphology of the UGC 6741 system to Arp 104, Paudel et al. The debate rages on with those two and may swing back tomorrow. The minimum mass galaxy, Id10354614, has a similar stellar mass to the local group Fornax dwarf galaxy or Virgo cluster dwarf galaxy VCC 1407; both are well known for their shell features and have been discussed as merger remnants (Coleman et al. Interacting pairs that are found in both our sample and those of the Tiny titan sample are shown with green circles. Cook1; 2, J.C. Lee , A. Adamo3, H. Kim4, R. Chandar5, B.C. These galaxies are selected by visual inspection of publicly available archival imaging from two wide-field optical surveys (SDSS-III and the Legacy Survey), and they possess low-surface-brightness features that are likely the result of an interaction between dwarf galaxies. From this figure, it is clear that the probability of finding a merging dwarf system increases in low-density environments. 2017). However, in Figure 6 we found no evidence for an enhanced SFR in our merging dwarf systems compared to a sample of local-volume, star-forming galaxies. A dwarf galaxy is a small galaxy composed of about 1000 up to several billion stars, as compared to the Milky Way's 200–400 billion stars. The American Astronomical Society (AAS), established in 1899 and based in Washington, DC, is the major organization of professional astronomers in North America. 2014; Paudel et al. 2005; Naab et al. The Institute of Physics (IOP) is a leading scientific society promoting physics and bringing physicists together for the benefit of all. To perform the photometric analysis and measure the total luminosity, we exclusively use the SDSS image data, unless explicitly mentioned otherwise. We classify the morphologies of the low-surface-brightness features into various categories: shells, stellar streams, loops, Antennae-like systems, or interacting. 2017). As a result, only small amounts of peculiar motions, due to the potential wells of giant galaxies, might be enough to make it nearly impossible for dwarfs to meet at low enough velocities to merge. For comparison, we also show a sample of early-type galaxies from Janz & Lisker (2009), which clearly offsets from our sample galaxies, creating a red sequence above the star-forming galaxies in the color–magnitude relation. Thus, it is probable that many of these are not bound to their hosts, and in many cases our 700 kpc search radius and ±700 km s−1 velocity range search criteria are not robust enough to characterize whether our merging dwarfs are hosted by their nearest giant host. First, a large aperture covering both the interacting galaxies is used to measure the total flux of the system, as done for the other classes. 2017). (2017) (e.g., Id09381942, Id10354614, Id12464814). and redshift in columns 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. Select your desired journals and corridors below. For our sample of merging dwarf galaxies, we also collected neutral hydrogen (H i) masses from the CDS server.9 This large sample of disrupted galaxies or galaxies that exhibit tidal debris contains more than 700 candidates. However, because of our past experiences, we often suspect a particular origin according to the appearance of the observed low-surface-brightness tidal features. Shell Feature Early-type Dwarf Galaxies in the Virgo Cluster, UGC 4703 Interacting Pair Near the Isolated Spiral Galaxy NGC 2718: A Milky Way Magellanic Cloud Analog, TiNy Titans: The Role of Dwarf–Dwarf Interactions in Low-mass Galaxy Evolution, A Widespread, Clumpy Starburst in the Isolated Ongoing Dwarf Galaxy Merger dm1647+21, Gas, Stars, and Star Formation in ALFALFA Dwarf Galaxies. Meanwhile, an S-shaped elongated stellar envelope is likely to be produced by tidal stretching from a nearby giant galaxy (Paudel et al. Nevertheless, the range of stellar mass coverage is of the order of 3 mag, with a median value of log(M*/M⊙) = 9.1. Dwarf galaxies not only differ in mass from giant galaxies, but they also have higher gas mass fractions and lower star formation efficiencies. 2013). Since these data are assembled from various sources in the literature, note the heterogeneity of the results. The Milky Way Galaxy A spiral galaxy, type Sbc, centered in Sagittarius. The shell features are mainly found outside of the main body of the galaxies. (2002). As previously mentioned, the overwhelming majority of galaxies in this sample are blue and they are also detected in the GALEX all-sky survey FUV-band image, which further confirms ongoing active star formation. It collects data on the following galaxy observables: angular diameters, apparent magnitudes in far-UV, B, and K s bands, Hα and H I fluxes, morphological types, H I-line widths, radial velocities, and distance estimates. Among the interacting systems there are 76 for which we can clearly separate out the individual interacting members (only "I" class), which we will refer to as an "interacting dwarf pair." produced by The Elixir System (Gwyn 2008). These data might be useful for detailed studies of dwarf–dwarf interactions in the near future. Low-mass galaxies are also typically dominated by exponential disks. Optical g-band and r-band magnitudes are listed in columns 5 and 6, respectively. Since the SDSS data archive provides well calibrated and sky-background subtracted images, no further effort has been made in this regard. 2016) in which a small stretched stellar stream is observed at the edge of NGC 4449. The wide range of dwarf galaxy luminosity reveals the dependence of dwarf galaxy chemical evolution on galaxy stellar … The Magellanic Clouds are often included but some say they are just passing by and not really in orbit. In our nearby vicinity, apart from the infamous interaction between the Magellanic clouds, there is also NGC 4449, an ongoing interaction between a Magellanic dwarf and its nearby dwarf companions (Putman et al. This may create a bias against merged dwarfs near giants; see the discussion in Section 6. P.C.-C. was supported by CONICYT (Chile) through Programa Nacional de Becas de Doctorado 2014 folio 21140882. , although the full catalog of 104 dwarf–dwarf pair galaxies with the names and positions of the galaxies has yet to be publicly released. In S15's sample, the pair galaxies needed to have a separation velocity of less than 300 km s−1, which means they required that there be a measured radial velocity for both galaxies. If the two interacting dwarf galaxies are visibly distinct, we simply designate them with an "I" (e.g., Id0217-0742), and if they are overlapping, or the progenitor galaxies are not distinct, we also give them an "M" (Merged, e.g., Id01250759). An image scale of 30'' is shown by the black horizontal bar. We also show the local-volume (<11 Mpc), star-forming galaxy sample of Lee et al. RIS. It is not surprising that this sample is somewhat biased toward the brighter end of our stellar mass cut. You need an eReader or compatible software to experience the benefits of the ePub3 file format. acknowledges the support by the Samsung Science & Technology Foundation under Project Number SSTF-BA1501-0. We compare the SFRs of candidate satellites and isolated merging dwarf systems; see Figure 10. We list the positions (R.A. and decl.) We retrieved archival images from the SDSS-III database (Abazajian et al. It has a worldwide membership of around 50 000 comprising physicists from all sectors, as well as those with an interest in physics. Representative examples of the different morphological classes by which we categorize our merging dwarf galaxies. (A A S ) journals as soon as they are published. Thus, we suspect that our selection criteria may be simply enhancing a real dependency on distance to the nearest giant galaxy. Numbers have also been assigned for the other galaxies, although for those galaxies not in the original PGC catalogue, it is not recommended to use that number as a name.[2]. The derived magnitudes were corrected for the Galactic extinction using Schlafly & Finkbeiner (2011), but not for internal extinction. Our sample's redshift range is <0.02, while the S15 sample galaxies have redshifts up to 0.07. Column (8): H i mass. en_US: dc.description.sponsorship: W. M. Keck Foundation: en_US Computer modeling of the shells and the motion of the stars indicates that the dwarf galaxy first passed through the galactic center of the Milky Way 2.7 billion years ago. Table 1. Our sample has a median value of g − r color index = 0.32 mag. 2009). This may potentially lead to a difference in the star formation efficiency and overall evolutionary history of dwarf galaxies compared to giants. Physical Properties of Merging Dwarf Galaxies. (2016), where their H i morphology was analyzed. The rest are scattered well beyond the escape velocity boundary, and often at distances >400 kpc, which is at least twice the Virial radius of a MW-like galaxy. 2013; Amorisco et al. The various sources may use different beam sizes, and exposure times, depending on the aim and scope of their individual projects (Paturel et al. In the low-mass regime, a detailed study of interacting systems has been exceptionally rare. (2014) already pointed out that Id10080227 is a compact elliptical galaxy (cE Chilingarian 2009), located in isolation, that may have formed through the merging of dwarf galaxies. Furthermore, the dynamics of gas is not scalable in the same way that the dissipationless star and dark matter components are. On the other hand, we have used the FUV flux to derive the SFR where the FUV emission traces recent star formation over longer timescales compared to Hα. 2014). Only 41 out of the 177 candidate dwarf–dwarf interaction systems have giant neighbors within a sky-projected distance of 700 kpc and a line-of-sight radial velocity range ±700 km s−1, and compared to the LMC–SMC, they are generally located at much larger sky-projected distances from their nearest giant neighbors. The coaddition provides higher signal-to-noise (S/N) than the single-band images. However, dwarf spheroidals do not possess gas in the periphery, as do bright ellipticals. 2003; Martínez-Delgado et al. This article presents a compilation and discussion of data relating to basic observational properties of all nearby (dwarf) galaxies within 3Mpc (the dwarf satellite systems of the Milky Way and M31 galaxies, the quasi-isolated dwarfs in the outer regions of the Local Group, and the isolated dwarf galaxies found in the surrounding of the Local Group out to the next nearest galaxy groups). Interacting (I): in this class, we identify ongoing interactions between two dwarf galaxies. The Catalogue of Principal Galaxies (PGC) is an astronomical catalog published in 1989 that lists B1950 and J2000 equatorial coordinates and cross-identifications for 73,197 galaxies. Bottom: examples of dwarfs that we classify as having interacted with another dwarf, categorized into three different types of tidal features (i.e., from left to right; interacting, tidal tail, and shell features). Evidence of Broadside Collision With Dwarf Galaxy Discovered in Milky Way “Shell structures” are first of their kind found in the galaxy By Mary L. Martialay. Figure 5. The 200 stars appear to have come from a merger between the Milky Way and a dwarf galaxy long ago. Receive alerts on all new research papers in American Astronomical Society There are basically two methods for detecting dark matter … Another comprehensive catalog of tidally interacting dwarf galaxies with nearby giant galaxies, similar to those studied in Paudel et al. For example, dwarf galaxies with tidal features whose origins are unclear and are located near a giant (M* > 1010) host galaxy have been selectively removed. For this, we first create a sample of interacting dwarf galaxies based on a visual analysis of color images from the SDSS. (2009; see the gray plots), who studied the FUV-derived SFRs of local-volume (<11 Mpc), star-forming galaxies. 2004; Paudel et al. The Legacy Surveys imaging of the DESI footprint is supported by the Director, Office of Science, Office of High Energy Physics of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. Additionally, we also use smaller apertures to measure the flux of the individual galaxies. Figure 2. (2017), we studied three dwarf galaxies and, with help of idealized numerical simulation, found that they had suffered a very recent (in last few hundred Myr), near equal mass mergers that explained their symmetry. (2008). Distribution of the logarithm of the stellar mass of merging dwarf systems. Bright 6, T.M. We also highlight the position of UGC 4703, which we studied as an LMC–SMC–MW analog in Paudel et al. This is because the SDSS provides the best homogeneous imaging data. In the ΛCDM cosmology (Spergel et al. We note that the majority of tidal tails are relatively redder than their galaxies' main bodies (likely a distinct stellar population). This table contains an all-sky catalog of 869 nearby galaxies having individual distance estimates within 11 Mpc or corrected radial velocities relative to the Local Group centroid V LG < 600 km s -1. Another part of the difference could emerge from the way we derived SFR. Available mean data for each object are given:[3], The Lyon-Meudon Extragalactic Database was eventually expanded into HyperLEDA, a database of a few million galaxies. In fact, a small number of the S15 galaxies can be found in common with this sample, although they follow the same trend as our sample (see Figure 6.). (2009) galaxies. 1956), which hosts a tidal dwarf galaxy (Nikiel-Wroczynski et al.´ 2014) and an ultra compact dwarf galaxy (Jennings et al.2015). Arp realized that the reason why galaxies formed into spiral or elliptical ... is a blue compact dwarf galaxy with extremely strong star formation activity; it is clearly too small to be the merger remnant of two spiral galaxies like the other merger remnants in this … You will need to select a minimum of one corridor. Figure 8. Shell features are found in 10 systems and the remaining 12 are a mixture of E/T/S classes. This catalog will also be invaluable for future follow- up studies of the Fornax cluster dwarf galaxies. For example, the shell feature might be the product of a complete coalescence, while two well separated interacting dwarfs are probably in the earlier stages of their interaction. The Milky Way is the galaxy which is the home of our Solar System together with at least 200 billion other stars (more recent estimates have given numbers around 400 billion) and their planets, and thousands of clusters and nebulae, including at least almost all objects of Messier's catalog which are not galaxies on their own … 2014). There are three dwarf galaxy systems (Id0202-0922, Id1448-0342, Id14503534) that can be considered dwarf analogs to the Antennae system (NGC 4038/4039). The Ids are in "hmdm" format. The field of view and color stretching are arbitrarily chosen to yield the best view of both interacting galaxies and low-surface-brightness features. For many galaxies (146 out of 177), we found there were GALEX all-sky survey observations available (Martin et al. In addition, 1 million objects were cataloged in the 2MASS Extended Source Catalog (2MASX). Top: examples where we conclude a dwarf galaxy is interacting with and being deformed by the tidal field of a nearby giant galaxy and they have been excluded from the catalog. However, we only calculate the total UV flux of the systems, and not that for the individual galaxies, because the GALEX images have a spatial resolution of only 5'' and the individual galaxies are not well resolved. The obscured dwarf galaxy PGC 39058 Hubble image of the elliptical galaxy PGC 6240. Rather than aiming to elaborate the detailed science of dwarf–dwarf mergers in this study, we instead seek to provide a sample of dwarf–dwarf merging systems that can later be used for more detailed science. http://www.cadc-ccda.hia-iha.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/en/megapipe/, http://www.sdss3.org/dr8/algorithms/sdssUBVRITransform.php, This site uses cookies. 1 Department of Astronomy and Center for Galaxy Evolution Research, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722, Republic of Korea, 2 Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348, Republic of Korea, 3 Astronomy Department, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción, Chile, 4 Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, UMR 7550, F-67000 Strasbourg, France, Sanjaya Paudel https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2922-6866, Rory Smith https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5303-6830, Suk Jin Yoon https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1842-4325, Received 2018 May 25 In 2011, Montana State University scientist Amy Reines and her team found the first evidence of a massive black hole in a dwarf galaxy. acknowledges support from the Center for Galaxy Evolution Research (No. In contrast, more than 10 neighbors are found only for 32 cases, and they are mostly interacting satellites. We found H i masses for 109 merging dwarf galaxies, as listed in Table 2. We start by selecting galaxies of magnitude Mr > −19 mag to ensure the parent sample of galaxies is predominantly composed of dwarf galaxies. While doing so, unrelated background and foreground objects were masked manually. Column (6): mass ratio of interacting galaxies. In the last column we provide the names of galaxies that we found in NED. Recently, a systematic study, in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) database, of dwarf galaxy pairs that are likely to be interacting, was presented by Stierwalt et al. 2012; Toloba et al. 2009). In these cases, we perform aperture photometry on the GALEX image, following the same procedure we used for the optical images.

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