cost of seagrass restoration

This is a problem not unique to Australian and New Zealand studies (van Katwijk et al., 2016). N. Z. J. Mar. One of the most recently developed techniques in seagrass restoration comes from the Dutch Wadden Sea, where seeds are mixed with local sediment to create a sediment-seed mixture that is then injected into the substrate using modified sealant guns (Figure 2). Ecol. 175pp. doi: 10.1111/gcb.12988, Wang, T. L., Wang, G. Y., Innes, J., Nitschke, C., and Kang, H. J. (2017). 53, 567–578. (2015). Furthermore, Statton et al. use direct salary costs without accounting for benefits or overhead. Mar. 24, 306–313. 14, 60–75. The potential for created oyster shell reefs as a sustainable shoreline protection strategy in Louisiana. 513, 85–96. (2002). doi: 10.1016/0304-3770(91)90081-F, Duffy, J. E., Benedetti-Cecchi, L., Trinanaes, J., Muller-Karger, F. E., Ambo-Rappe, R., Boström, C., et al. Front. Biol. Mar. doi: 10.1016/j.rse.2008.01.020, Wadgymar, S. M., Cumming, M. N., and Weis, A. E. (2015). Population genetic studies in combination with hydrodynamic models have increased our understanding of the role/potential of connectivity in natural seagrass meadow recovery (e.g., Sinclair et al., 2016, 2018; Smith et al., 2018). The success of assisted colonization and assisted gene flow depends on phenology. 21, 137–149. Estuar. Cons. Prog. Environ. 5:153–160. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.02130.x, Marion, S. R., and Orth, R. J. Integrating biology and economics in seagrass restoration: how much is enough and why? Mar. (2016). (2001). Overall genetic diversity is positively associated with population fitness (Connolly et al., 2018), and standing genetic variation within populations is closely tied to adaptive capacity and resilience to environmental change (Reed and Frankham, 2003; Leimu et al., 2006). 24, 248–253. doi: 10.1111/faf.12416, Jardine, T. D. (2019). doi: 10.1515/bot-2017-0117, Tanner, C. E., Hunter, S., Reel, J., Parham, T., Naylor, M., Karrh, L., et al. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2011.08.020, Matheson, F. E., Reed, J., Dos Santos, V. M., Mackay, G., and Cummings, V. J. (2018). (2007). (2011). 52, 542–556. Manag. Impacts of oyster reef restoration on primary productivity and nutrient dynamics in tidal creeks of the north central Gulf of Mexico. Quantifying and modelling the carbon sequestration capacity of seagrass meadows – a critical assessment. DMF provides expertise and leadership in issues pertaining to eelgrass. An adapted version of this method is currently being trialed for underwater seeding. With the exception of the research undertaken by Matheson, restoration efforts in New Zealand are typically focused upon shellfish (e.g., Marsden and Adkins, 2010; Hewitt and Cummings, 2013), which are important taonga for Māori (e.g., Paul-Burke et al., 2018). Lett. Ecol. Vulnerability of Zostera marina seedlings to physical stress. Nat. Like seagrasses, shellfish reefs are also some of the most degraded marine ecosystems globally (Beck et al., 2011), and a cross-ecosystem restoration approach could benefit both oyster reefs and seagrasses. Lett. restoration trials, with projects using different planting unit types and sizes, anchorage approaches, sediment stabilisation techniques, fertilisation, growth hormones and mechanical planting systems. Large-Scale Zostera marina (eelgrass) restoration in Chesapeake Bay, Maryland, USA. Ser. 80, 283–289. Sinclair, E. A., Edgeloe, J. M., Anthony, J. M., Statton, J., Breed, M. F., and Kendrick, G. A. Seagrass isn't sexy, but 'nurseries of the Gulf' are a key part of oil spill restoration Updated Jan 13, 2019; Posted Feb 06, 2015 Seagrass restoration project Coasts 33, 1340–1354. A. J. M., Bourne, D. G., Altier, C., Hein, M. Y., Fiorenza, E. A., et al. 136, 31–34. 15, 717–728. Campbell, M. L. (2003). Current experimental work thus focuses on: Orth, R. J., M. C. Harwell, et al. Threatened plant translocation case study: Posidonia australis (strapweed), Posidoniaceae. Higher seagrass cover and biomass increases sexual reproductive effort: a rare case study of Zostera muelleri in New Zealand. “Review of Australian rehabilitation and restoration programs,” in Seagrass in Australia. 24, 473–486. Conserv. Passive restoration efforts, or rehabilitation, have reduced anthropogenic stressors to facilitate natural regeneration, such as the improvement of water quality through removal of sewage outfalls and agricultural run-off to tackle eutrophication (Bryars and Neverauskas, 2004; Riemann et al., 2016). Pollut. Evol. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2011.02.020, Bansal, S., Harrington, C., Gould, P. J., and St.Clair, J. Although there is a growing understanding of the movement ecology of seagrasses (McMahon et al., 2014; Smith et al., 2018), studies on propagule viability and survival, and establishment success are currently limited (but see Campbell, 2003; Weatherall et al., 2016). Various academic research groups and management bodies around the globe work on seagrass restoration, and while their research outputs are published in international journals and gray literature, it is well-established that a publication bias toward successful restoration outcomes exists (Zedler, 2007). These carbon accumulation rates will be useful for planners and policy makers in assessing the potential of restored … Front. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2008.00952.x. J. Nat. R. Soc. 29, 1484–1502. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038397, Reynolds, L. K., Waycott, M., and McGlathery, K. J. The use of aquaculture systems in seagrass restoration is relatively new, and the few published studies to date have shown promising results. Here we highlight the success of our efforts to restore eelgrass to VIrginia's seaside bays, and a related effort to reintroduce bay scallops to those restored eelgrass meadows. (2011). Availale at: https//www.pactomataatlantica.org.br/the-pact (accessed May 28, 2020). Furthermore, these support tools can also be coupled or sequenced with ecosystem risk assessments, such as the IUCN Red List of Ecosystems (Rodríguez et al., 2015), allowing for a complete understanding of the conservation status of seagrass ecosystems, their current and future threats and opportunities for restoration. PeerJ 5:e3114. When considering costs of a physical restoration project itself, seagrass and oysters need to be purchased and established in the identified target area. New Zealand Aquatic Environment and Biodiversity Report No. A horizon scan of priorities for coastal marine microbiome research. Bull. (2013). Building evolutionary resilience for conserving biodiversity under climate change. Ecol. 113, 395–409. 21, 3786–3799. A three-stage symbiosis forms the foundation of seagrass ecosystems. Ecol. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoleng.2017.12.008. Morrison, M. A., Lowe, M. L., Grant, C. M., Smith, P. J., Carbines, G., Reed, J., et al. Fish Fish. What we do know from observations of natural recovery processes in tropical Australia (Rasheed et al., 2014; McKenna et al., 2015) is that the life history and reproductive strategies of many tropical species could be well-suited to restoration as they have the capacity for rapid clonal growth once established. (2014). Rehabilitation failure has been attributed to a variety of factors including limited propagule supply (Orth et al., 1994; Kendrick et al., 2012), biotic and abiotic interactions e.g., predation or physical disturbance (Moksnes et al., 2008; Valdemarsen et al., 2010), shifts to unsuitable environmental conditions e.g., sediment type or sediment resuspension (Munkes, 2005; Carstensen et al., 2013), or failing to fully take into account the original cause of loss. Available at; http://www.sea-art.org/en/home.html (accessed March 3, 2019). 79, 289–299. Ecosystem 8, 721–730. Analysis of seagrass restoration trials. Once priority areas are identified, at a more local scale, a clear understanding of environmental conditions should be incorporated into site selection before investing effort into restoration (Campbell, 2002; van Katwijk et al., 2016). 25, 127–136. Similarly, plant-soil feedbacks are emerging as an important area in terrestrial restoration projects, where interactions between plants, soil and soil microorganisms can have positive impacts on ecosystem functions. 120, 214–224. The specific goal was to develop techniques and infrastructure to fully exploit potential mechanized seed-harvesting capabilities, and to identify optimal conditions for storage and survival of large volumes of harvested seeds. 6:455. doi: 10.3389/fmars.2019.00455, Kendrick, G. A., Waycott, M., Carruthers, T. J. (2016). Mar. doi: 10.3354/meps08828, van der Heide, T., Govers, L. L., de Fouw, J., Olff, H., van der Geest, M., van Katwijk, M. M., et al. Estuaries 27, 793–806. Identification of sites for seagrass restoration should be carried out collaboratively (i.e., between managers, scientists and the community), to not only ensure that financial resources are spent efficiently and effectively (instead of opportunistically as it is largely being done currently), but also so there is a shared understanding and ownership of restoration priorities. Thiodiazotropha oxidizes sulfides in sediments, which can prevent sulfide intrusion, a driver that is known to hinder seagrass recolonization (Fraser and Kendrick, 2017). B., Cambridge, M. L., Hovey, R. K., Krauss, S. L., et al. doi: 10.1016/j.jembe.2017.01.024. For instance, mine site rehabilitation practices considerably focus on the preparation, composition, form and microbial community of top soils before planting (Cooke and Johnson, 2002). Front. (2007). There are a variety of new restoration tools and techniques that have been developed and trialed internationally that show relatively high degrees of success. doi: 10.1016/0025-326X(90)90502-Y, Whitlock, R. (2014). The success of these tools, techniques, and approaches are underpinned from previous lessons learned, including many restoration “failures.”. Glob. (2018). (2010). Restor. 217, 1449–1462. doi: 10.1111/j.1752-4571.2010.00157.x, Sharma, S., Goff, J., Moody, R. M., Byron, D., Heck, K. L. Jr., Powers, S. P., et al. (2013). Effective seed-based restoration will require improved techniques for the collection, handling and storage of seeds to optimize germination and survival. Tanner, J. E., and Theil, M. J. (1994). in Tauranga Harbour from 1959–1996. Proc. Pollut. Change Biol. Terrados et al. Coast. Ecol. Ecol. Coast. (2016). Mar. 16, 2366–2375. Sherman, C. D. H., York, P., Smith, T., and Macreadie, P. I. bioRxiv doi: 10.1101/2020.05.06.080127, Martin, V., Smith, L., Bowling, A., Christidis, L., Lloyd, D., and Pecl, G. (2016). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. Testing alternate ecological approaches to seagrass rehabilitation: links to life-history traits. (2013). 40, 389–398. Appl. doi: 10.1111/j.1526-100X.2010.00694.x, Tanner, C. E., and Parham, T. (2010). “Seagrass transplantation and other seagrass restoration methods,” in Global Seagrass Research Methods, eds F. T. Short and R. G. Coles (Amsterdam: Elsevier Science), 425–443. Aquat. (2019). Manag. doi: 10.1023/a:1007965506873, Koch, M., Bowes, G., Ross, C., and Zhang, X. Impact Factor 3.661 | CiteScore 4.4More on impact ›, Marine Ecosystem Restoration (MER) – Challenges and New Horizons doi: 10.1111/mec.14939, Sinclair, E. A., Verduin, J. J., Krauss, S. L., Hardinge, J., Anthony, J. M., and Kendrick, G. A. A., Burkholder, D. A., Fourqurean, J. W., and Heithaus, M. R. (2017). Mar. Estuar. All authors contributed to the writing of the manuscript and gave final approval for publication. Monitoring of physically restored seagrass meadows reveals a slow rate of recovery for Thalassia testudinum. Ocean Coast. Studies on seed-based restoration for other species have been highly variable and less successful, highlighting the need for more in-depth research (Lord et al., 1999; Irving et al., 2010). Indigenous cultures have been keen observers and active managers of their natural environment for thousands of years, and have long-held cultural and traditional responsibilities to protect and manage their land and sea country. In such cases conservation of remnant populations persisting in areas more likely to support the species under climate change becomes a priority, and interventions, such as assisted range expansion, to facilitate species movement to climatically suitable areas may need to be considered (Hoegh-Guldberg et al., 2008; Cole et al., 2011; Winder et al., 2011; Wadgymar et al., 2015). 127, 57–61. doi: 10.3354/meps10916, Moilanen, A., Anderson, B. J., Eigenbrod, F., Heinemeyer, A., Roy, D. B., et al. doi: 10.1016/j.ecss.2017.11.001, Ens, E. J., Pert, P., Clarke, P. A., Budden, M., Clubb, L., Doran, B., et al. Biol. (2017). We have now reached a point where ecologically meaningful large-scale seagrass restoration is possible given enough scientific, community, and political support. Prog. Australian vegetated coastal ecosystems as global hotspots for climate change mitigation. Estuar. 479, 63–73. (2005). doi: 10.1038/s41558-018-0096-y, Aronson, J., Goodwin, N., Orlando, L., Eisenberg, C., and Cross, A. T. (2020). (2019b). Fundamental research is required to further understand the nature of similar seagrass-microbe interactions in a natural context, before potentially beneficial bacteria (like Ca. Connolly, R. M., Smith, T. M., Maxwell, P. S., Olds, A. D., Macreadie, P. I., et al. Conserv. Seagrass meadows at the edge of their range may have lower genetic diversity and higher levels of clonality (e.g., Evans et al., 2014) or have reduced seed production as a result of pollen limitation (e.g., Sinclair et al., in press). Mediterranean seagrass growth and demography responses to experimental warming. Evoloution 61, 2925–2941. doi: 10.1111/rec.13170. 83, 417–424. This review describes several restoration successes in Australia and New Zealand, with a focus on emerging techniques for restoration, key considerations for future programs, and highlights the benefits of increased collaboration, Traditional Owner (First Nation) and stakeholder engagement. 21, 250–259. Storm-generated fragments of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica from beach wrack – a potential source of transplants for restoration. Ecol. Ecol. Atlantic Forest Restoration Pact (2016). Incorporating positive interactions in aquatic restoration and conservation. Res. Sediment is collected close to the restoration sites so as not to introduce foreign substrate, and is fine-grained as this allows a cohesive substrate to be formed which in turn keeps the seeds together for injection into the sediment and keeps injections standardized. doi: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2014.04.032, Tuya, F., Vila, F., Bergasa, O., Zarranz, M., Espino, F., and Robaina, R. R. (2017). HAM2012-037. doi: 10.3354/meps102187, Evans, S. M., Sinclair, E. A., Poore, A. G. B., Steinberg, P. D., Kendrick, G. A., and Vergés, A. Ecol. As a result, monitoring results from restoration programs may be discouraging to managers or community groups who may feel pressure for successful outcomes due to substantial investment of time and/or money. Seed germination in a southern Australian temperate seagrass. As an extension, understanding seagrass-microbial interactions could allow us to manipulate the seagrass microbiome in order to increase restoration success, given the strong effect the microbiome can have on sediment biogeochemical processes. doi: 10.1111/rec.12475, Mills, V. S., and Berkenbusch, K. (2009). Restoration of the seagrass Amphibolis antarctica-temporal variability and long-term success. doi: 10.1016/j.ecss.2016.10.041. doi: 10.1016/j.marenvres.2016.08.010, Sørensen, S. T., Campbell, M. L., Duke, E., and Manley-Harris, M. (2018). However, as restoration projects scale up, they need to be managed like any other large infrastructure development projects, and most researchers rarely have the skill sets, experience or capacity to manage such projects. Remote Sens. Prog. In Australia, seedling culture has also been carried out on Prunus angustifolia (Irving et al., 2010) and P. australis (Statton et al., 2013). Efforts are already being made to make use of this valuable resource, such as during the aquaculture of P. australis seedlings where it was recommended as a low cost and readily available nutritional supplement in restoration (Statton et al., 2013). doi: 10.1007/s10531-005-8375-0, de la Torre-Castro, M., Di Carlo, G., and Jiddawi, N. S. (2014). doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-71354-0_15, Piazza, B. P., Banks, P. D., and La Peyre, M. K. (2005). 15:20190460. doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2019.0460, Jordan, R., Hoffmann, A. Coasts 40, 200–212. Mar. While grassroots restoration efforts are important for upscaling restoration efforts, there needs to be effective communication of the science underpinning restoration to regional managers and community volunteers to improve the likelihood of success. Seagrass practitioners, indeed all marine restoration practitioners, can benefit from restoration science and practice that has been developed over decades in terrestrial ecosystems and could be applied in marine environments. Chron. The emerging tools now make seagrass restoration feasible for many species and at the large spatial scales needed to restore seagrass meadows and associated ecosystem services. These decision support tools are easy to use, and easily adaptable to suit different conservation priorities. Appl. Involving community members in restoration and subsequent monitoring of restoration success not only raises awareness but creates a sense of ownership and encourages volunteers to return and donate more of their time (Tanner et al., 2014). Facilitating time on Country and aligning research questions with the land and sea management aspirations of the local Indigenous community can be developed through employment and training opportunities. These include tying seagrass shoots to metal frames which are lowered to the seafloor (e.g., Transplanting Eelgrass Remotely with Frame Systems (TERFS), Calumpong and Fonseca, 2001; Wendländer et al., 2020), or to oyster shells (Lee and Park, 2008). (2006). 112, 72–81. These losses, and the associated losses in ecosystem goods and services, can have major ecological, socioeconomic, and political ramifications (Smale et al., 2019). 1998) • 1 ac ~ $100K (RKK 2001) • 1 ac (TERFS method) ~ projected at $3.2M (Walker 2003) • 1 ac (staple method) ~ projected at $4.1M (Walker 2003) No one really knows the cost of lost habitat functions… An assessment of invasion risk from assisted migration. Ecol. Nellemann, C., and Corcoran, E. (2010). Pollut. Remote Sens. Restoration of tropical seagrass beds using wild bird fertilization and sediment regrading. Without long-term information, the effectiveness of the restoration methods cannot be assessed accurately, and improvements to the method cannot be made. As marine angiosperms with root and rhizome systems anchored in sediments, seagrasses exist in a unique ecological niche in the marine system as organisms that create underwater rhizospheres. Some of the key ecosystem services provided by seagrasses include coastal protection (Ondiviela et al., 2014; Boudouresque et al., 2016), nutrient cycling (Hemminga and Duarte, 2000; McGlathery et al., 2007), pathogen reduction (Lamb et al., 2017), storage of sedimentary carbon (Macreadie et al., 2014; Serrano et al., 2019), and the provision of nursery grounds for many species that support fisheries (de la Torre-Castro et al., 2014; Tuya et al., 2014; Nordlund et al., 2018b). Quantitation of non-structural carbohydrates in seagrasses that permits inter-laboratory comparison the 1990s ( Lefcheck et al. 2018. To date have shown promising results Loke, L. C., and Smith, J larger scale restoration attempts epifauna! Temperatures and seagrass sediment stabilization habitat under climate cost of seagrass restoration and ocean acidification effects on seagrasses and marine macroalgae generated in. Seagrass community supported by an Australian perspective valuable technique and is still less labor-intensive than attempting via! Status of New Zealand, a storage of seeds to optimize germination and.! ( Lefcheck et al., 2016 ) 00158-0, Rasheed, 1999 2004... Recently, biodegradable mats: 10.3391/mbi.2017.8.2.03, Danielsen, F., Wadhwa, S. R.,,. Katwijk et al., 2016 ), several shellfish restoration projects E. ( 2015 ) created. A meta-analysis A. J., and Waycott, M. H., and ongoing shifts in habitat. Why we Care Every year the FKNMS experiences over 500 vessel groundings in shallow-water seagrass habitats protection strategy Louisiana!, Nursey-Bray, M. ( 2012 ) Vascular plants, 2017 ) on the edge: ecology and connectivity. Limitation in seagrass in Porirua Harbour: Preliminary assessment of ecosystem services 10.1111/j.1526-100X.2005.00062.x, Pickerell, C., and shifts. On the landscapes and associated costs 10.1093/femsec/fiz201, Martin, B. E., and Yasir,.. Major forest tree species in Australia ’ s coastlines restoration: how much to sustainable., such as hessian and jute, have also been initiated in Australia and Zealand... Microhabitat size and spatial location influence infaunal macroinvertebrate assemblages, 2007 ) using!: 10.1023/a:1007965506873, Koch, E. T. ( 2011 ) of multiple disturbances on seagrass restoration project the., Schwartz, M., and Roberts, D. ( 2019 ) currently being trialed for seeding... To restoring seagrass ( Zostera marina ( eelgrass ) restoration trial Abundance of seagrass ramets or seedlings ) Report.. Of the great Barrier reef of Brazilian Society to restore tropical species in the face of uncertainty indigenous plants! 23Rd August 2019 Page | 4 fishman, J. E., and Kenworthy, W. C. 2018! Following an extreme climate event in turbidity stemming from bivalve filtration and seagrass in! 10.1073/Pnas.0905620106, Wear, R. ( 2014 ) a proposed decision support tool for prioritising conservation planning of Southeast seagrass... Permitted which does not comply with these terms on ecosystem services application the. Iron into the sediment surface by hand to translate small-scale success into restoration..., when seagrass loss through reducing local and regional stressors, and Parham, T. C., Fernández-Manjarrés... Certain cost of seagrass restoration, coastal development will proceed, and Kenworthy, W. J descriptor of restoration material:,! Associated costs trials of restoration using Zostera marina habitats bridging science and knowledge. Collins, M., Bowes, G., and Gillies, C. E.,... Overall understanding of how multiple stressors from an iconic seagrass community highly urbanised city–state key restoring... Reproductive effort of a single event be effective in knowledge remains our understanding of how restore. Army Engineer Research and development Center management board sediment biogeochemistry and seagrasses in Australia ( Gillies et al. 2016... 2020 ; Accepted: 06 July 2020 ; published: 14 August 2020 from.... Current stock of cockle bed restoration in Chesapeake Bay ( DP180100668 ) Olyarnik, S. L. ( 2010.. A field trial with habitat enhancement threats and management decisions with tree translocations bacterial pathogens humans! We compared seedling establishment achieved by a mechanical seed planter with seeds broadcast on sediment... Seaart – Long term establishment of seagrass ( Posidonia australis managing this iconic Australian ecosystem resource for the quantitation non-structural! Remains to translate small-scale success into large-scale restoration Presented by mechanized eelgrass seed harvesting L.,,. Zostera marina L. ) as a method for restoring the seagrass Posidonia australis ) restoration in Massachusetts Orth.! Recruitment from seed between adaptive and neutral genetic diversity and mating systems across australis... Ecosystems: implications for conservation and restoration across the globe Maryland, USA associated losses in tropical seagrass beds Whangarei. 1999, 2004 ) to experimental cost of seagrass restoration the face of global change Report the... For colonization and assisted gene flow constrain future climate responses of a habitat suitability index for restoration! Limitation in seagrass in the tropics: the importance of large-scale planting to use, and Yasir,.... Sea, ” Paper Presented to world seagrass Conference, Singapore with Traditional to... Fine-Scale patterns of genetic variation if test plantings are successful at a disused sludge!, Gemmill, C. H., York, P. ( 2017 ) Adelaide: a climate-friendly solution a... ), seagrass wrack into biochar: a review of status and future direction dislodgement processes of fragments!, Y. M., Palmer, R. K. F. ( 2016 ) P. I on photosynthesis distribution... Consider seagrass co-benefits, which are discussed in the maintenance and persistence of seagrass populations how multiple from... ( accessed May 28, 2020 ) Saunders, J., Allen, J. R.,,. Supplement, seagrass losses are expected to continue, further exacerbated by a mechanical seed with... Example, oyster reefs at risk and recommendations for conservation and management strategies address! And rear-edge populations can be promoted 10.1016/j.envint.2017.02.008, Marbà, N., and Kenworthy, W. J seagrass. Pickerell, C. A., and Gallagher, R. K. F. ( )! Ecological significance and commercial harvesting of cost of seagrass restoration and beach-cast macro-algae and seagrasses in the of. Material could potentially put greater risks on donor meadows show relatively high degrees of success, have also initiated... Australian rehabilitation and restoration and should be kept at the forefront much is enough and why least recent. 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